In August of 2015, a heart-wrenching video of a sea turtle suffering through the removal of a plastic straw from its nostrils went viral. Whether or not you have seen this video, its effects have radiated throughout communities across the globe. Many businesses have stopped offering straws, and local and national campaigns have been started to “save the sea turtles.” It is important, however, to not just look at the videos that pop up on Facebook, but to educate ourselves and others on the issue of plastic pollution and the policies in place to combat it.
The issue of plastics in the marine environment is widely recognized as a global environmental issue.[i] For decades, plastic pollution has been growing at a concerning rate, and single-use plastics (such as plastic bags, packaging, and straws) account for nearly 50 percent of this pollution.[ii] Plastic waste can be found in every corner of the world, from large populated cities to islands seemingly ‘untouched’ by humankind. Its impact on all types of organisms from zooplankton to mammals is all found to be negative.[iii] The problems brought on by plastic waste are not only due to the obvious issues such as ingestion, but also can alter ecosystem structure through the creation of new habitats for bacteria and algae. The increase in floating bacterial and algal colonies can increase the biogeographical range of these microorganisms and can therefore risk the spread of both infectious diseases and invasive species.[iv]
The issue of plastic pollution is not confined to biological and environmental impacts, but economic and social impacts as well. It is estimated that plastic pollution causes a 1-5% decline in benefits such as fisheries and aquaculture, recreational activity, and overall global wellbeing, resulting in the costs of nearly $2.5 billion per year.[v] This same study found that plastic waste can be estimated to cost nearly $33,000 per ton in reduced environmental value, and with nearly 8 million tons of plastic waste being dumped into the oceans each year, the economic and environmental impacts are vast and concerning.[vi]
To make things even worse, studies have found that despite recycling efforts, 91% of the plastic humans produce isn’t recycled, leaving it to flow into the environment.[vii] One way that so much plastic can end up not being recycled despite global efforts is through small, single-use plastics such as plastic straws.
In the United States alone, it is estimated that 500 million plastic straws are used every day.[viii] Through an analysis of trash collection from US coastlines over five years, it was found that there are approximately 7.5 million plastic straws on America’s shores.[ix] This number is nothing compared to the 437 million-8.3 billion plastic straws estimated to be along the entire world’s coastlines (this range is incredibly wide due to the difficulties involved with identifying large volumes of plastics in the marine environment).[x] These straws are not biodegradable and therefore persist in the marine environment for decades.
Plastic straws and stirrers account for only 8.1% of plastic pollution worldwide.[xi] So why are people focusing on plastic straws if other sources of plastic pollution are more widespread? The largest problem with plastic straws is their size. They are small pieces of plastic, making it difficult to recycle them. Additionally, people forget they are plastic and therefore do not think to put them in the recycling bin in the first place.[xii]
Many companies and cities have placed bans on plastic straws all across the nation and the world. The movement to get rid of plastic straws is steadily growing, and due to support from social media, has experienced a boom in recent years. Large companies like Starbucks and public figures like Queen Elizabeth II have expressed their commitment to reduce and even eliminate the use of plastic straws.[xiii]
It is not enough, however, for single companies and individuals to state their commitment. It takes local, state, and federal policies to truly affect change in terms of the volume of single-use plastics being consumed. In the US, Seattle became the first city to ban the use of plastic straws as well as plastic stir sticks and utensils.[xiv] New York City recently introduced legislation to ban straws by 2020, and San Francisco also based a proposal to ban straws and stirrers.[xv] These cities set the precedent for many more cities to do the same and take a stand against plastic pollution. Some states, like California, have even implemented state-wide plastic straw provisions in which restaurants are banned from handing out single-use plastic straws to customers unless they specifically ask for one.[xvi]
These straw bans, while widely supported, do face some criticism from people that claim that these bans ignore the needs of people living with disabilities and argue that these measures will not be able to save the oceans.[xvii]
It is argued that these bans discriminate against disabled people due to the fact that many alternatives to plastic straws are unable to substitute for plastic straws. Paper straws and other biodegradable types of plastic can cause problems for people with limited jaw control because they are able to bite through them. Metal straws conduct heat and cold and are hard and inflexible, causing them to pose safety risks. Even other types of reusable straws require washing, which not all people with disabilities can do. For these reasons, outright bans can cause problems for the disabled community. These problems can be addressed, however, through provisions, such as the California straw provision, in which straws are only available by request.[xviii]
While the complete ban of straws won’t completely solve our world’s plastic pollution problem, it is definitely a step in the right direction. Though a relatively small percent of the world’s plastic waste is being prevented through the ban of plastic straws, movements such as these are able to bring attention to the larger conversations about waste management and plastic pollution that desperately need to be had.
[i] Locker, Melissa. “Here are the U.S. cities that have banned plastic straws so far”. Fast Company. June 1, 2018. https://www.fastcompany.com/40580132/here-are-the-u-s-cities-that-have-banned-plastic-straws-so-far
[ii] Dirk Xanthos and Tony R. Walker, “International Policies to Reduce Plastic Marine Pollution from Single-use Plastics (plastic Bags and Microbeads): A Review,” Marine Pollution Bulletin 118, no. 1-2 (2017): doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02.048.
[iii] Michael Niaounakis, “Environmental, Social, and Economic Impacts,” Management of Marine Plastic Debris, 2017, , doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-44354-8.00002-1.
[iv] Niaounakis, 2017.
[v] Niaounakis, 2017.
[vi] Niaounakis, 2017.
[vii] Parker, Laura. “Here’s How much plastic trash is littering the Earth”, National Geographic, December 20, 2018. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/07/plastic-produced-recycling-waste-ocean-trash-debris-environment/.
[viii] Melissa, 2018.
[ix] Parker, 2018.
[x] Parker, 2018.
[xi] Parker, 2018.
[xii] Parker, 2018.
[xiii] Melissa, 2018.
[xiv] Parker, 2018.
[xv] Parker, 2018.
[xvi] No Author, “Why Plastic Straws Are Being Banned”, SquareUp, 2018. https://squareup.com/townsquare/why-plastic-straws-are-being-banned.
[xvii] No Author, 2018.
[xviii] No Author, 2018.